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What are the equipments used for manufacturing of pellets?

by:TENGDA     2024-05-23


Manufacturing pellets is a growing industry driven by the demand for efficient and sustainable fuel sources. Pellets are compressed forms of biomass, such as wood, agricultural residues, and even recycled materials, that are used for various purposes, including heat and electricity generation. In order to produce high-quality pellets efficiently, several key pieces of equipment are required. These equipment aid in the process of converting raw materials into compact and uniform pellets. In this article, we will explore the various equipment used in the manufacturing of pellets and how they contribute to the overall production process.

The Chipping and Grinding Equipment

Chipping and grinding are the initial steps in the pellet manufacturing process. These processes are crucial for reducing the size of raw materials and preparing them for further processing. Chipping equipment is primarily used for processing wood and forestry residues, while grinding equipment handles a wider range of materials, including agricultural residues and other biomasses.

One of the commonly used chipping machines is the disc chipper. It consists of a rotating disc with multiple blades that cut and chip the raw materials into smaller pieces. The disc chipper can handle large volumes of wood efficiently and provides a uniform chip size, which is important for subsequent processing steps.

Grinding equipment, on the other hand, utilizes hammer mills or grinders to reduce the size of various biomass materials. These machines use high-speed rotating hammers to shred and pulverize the materials, resulting in a fine and consistent particle size. The grinder's ability to handle a wide range of raw materials makes it a versatile tool in pellet manufacturing.

The Drying Equipment

After chipping or grinding, the raw materials typically have a high moisture content, which is detrimental to the pelletizing process. Moisture affects the quality and durability of pellets, causing them to be flaky and inefficient. Therefore, drying is a critical step in the pellet manufacturing process.

Fluidized bed dryers are commonly used to remove excess moisture from raw materials. These dryers use a hot gas flow that suspends and agitates the materials, ensuring efficient and uniform drying. The fluidized bed dryer not only reduces the moisture content but also helps to pre-heat the materials, enhancing their overall pelletization characteristics.

Another type of dryer used in pellet manufacturing is the rotary dryer. It consists of a large drum that rotates while the raw materials pass through it. As the materials come into contact with the heated drum, moisture is evaporated, resulting in the desired dryness. Rotary dryers are suitable for handling larger volumes of raw materials and offer flexibility in terms of controlling drying temperatures.

The Pelletizing Equipment

Pelletizing is the core process in manufacturing pellets. Once the raw materials are properly prepared, they go through the pelletizing equipment where they are compressed into small cylindrical shapes with high pressure and heat. There are two main types of pelletizing equipment: flat die pellet mills and ring die pellet mills.

Flat die pellet mills are smaller and more suitable for small-scale or home use. They consist of a flat die and a set of rollers that press the raw materials through small holes in the die to form pellets. The compact size and simple operation make flat die pellet mills popular among individuals or small businesses producing pellets for personal use or local distribution.

Ring die pellet mills, on the other hand, are larger and generally used for large-scale pellet production. They feature a rotating die with multiple holes and rollers that compress the materials into pellets as they pass through the die. The high capacity and efficiency of ring die pellet mills make them ideal for industrial-scale production.

The Cooling and Sieving Equipment

After the pellets are formed, they need to be cooled and sieved to remove any fines or oversized particles. Cooling is essential to stabilize the pellets and improve their durability and transportation characteristics. Cooling equipment uses ambient air or forced air to cool down the pellets to room temperature.

The most commonly used cooling equipment is the pellet cooler, which consists of a conveyor system that transports the pellets through a cooling chamber. As the pellets move along the conveyor, cool air is blown over them, rapidly reducing their temperature. This helps to solidify the pellets and prevent them from crumbling during subsequent handling and storage.

Sieving equipment is used to separate pellets of different sizes and eliminate any fines or oversized particles. This equipment ensures that the final product meets the required size and quality specifications. Vibrating screeners or rotary screeners are commonly used for this purpose. They have different mesh sizes that allow the pellets to pass through while retaining any undesired particles. The separated fines can be processed and recycled back into the pellet manufacturing process.

The Packaging Equipment

Once the pellets have been cooled and sieved, they are ready for packaging. Packaging equipment plays a crucial role in efficiently and effectively packaging the pellets, ready for distribution and use. There are various packaging methods and equipment available, depending on the desired packaging format, such as bags, bulk bags, or even loose bulk.

For small-scale or medium-scale operations, bagging machines are commonly used. These machines automatically weigh and fill bags with a predetermined amount of pellets. They are designed to facilitate efficient packaging and minimize human effort.

For large-scale operations or bulk packaging, bulk bag filling machines are employed. These machines fill large, flexible intermediate bulk containers (FIBCs) with a significant quantity of pellets. Bulk bag fillers are capable of filling multiple bags simultaneously, ensuring high productivity and a streamlined packaging process.


In conclusion, the manufacturing of pellets involves a series of equipment that work together to convert raw materials into high-quality pellets. Starting with chipping or grinding equipment to reduce the size of raw materials, followed by drying equipment to remove excess moisture, pelletizing equipment to shape the pellets, cooling and sieving equipment to enhance their stability and size, and finally, packaging equipment to prepare the pellets for distribution. Each of these equipment plays a vital role in ensuring the efficiency, quality, and consistency of the pellet manufacturing process, enabling the production of a valuable and sustainable source of fuel. Whether for residential or industrial use, the demand for pellets continues to grow, making the equipment used in their manufacturing process essential in meeting this demand.

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